william penn definition

The reign of King Charles had further tightened restrictions against all religious sects other than the Anglican Church, making the penalty for unauthorized worship imprisonment or deportation. The land of Pennsylvania had belonged to the Duke of York, who acquiesced, but he retained New York and the area around New Castle and the Eastern portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. Randall M. Miller and William Pencak, ed.. Scharf, John Thomas and Thompson Wescott (1884). Oktober 1644 in London ; † 30. Nach dem Tod von Penns Vater beglich König Karl II. Two years after Gulielma's death he married Hannah Margaret Callowhill (1671–1726), daughter of Thomas Callowhill and Anna (Hannah) Hollister. [98] Remarkably, though the Crown reserved the right to override any law it wished, Penn's skillful stewardship did not provoke any government reaction while Penn remained in his province. Pennsylvania wurde zu einer Zufluchtsstätte für Angehörige religiöser Minderheiten, die in Europa verfolgt oder diskriminiert wurden (Quäker, Hugenotten, Mennoniten, Böhmische Brüder, Juden u. Wir sind stolz darauf, das Akronym WPU in der größten Datenbank mit Abkürzungen und Akronymen aufzulisten. William Penn. [73] But the persecution of Quakers had accelerated and the differences were overridden; Penn again resumed missionary work in Holland and Germany. They had eight children in twelve years. His eldest son William, Jr. was leading a dissolute life, neglecting his wife and two children, and running up gambling debts. ‘’Encyclopedia of American Biography (1974) p. 847. Back at school, the administration imposed stricter religious requirements including daily chapel attendance and required a dress. Zahlreiche Schriften Penns wurden ins Deutsche übersetzt und erzielten hohe Auflagen. He had young Penn enroll in law school but soon his studies were interrupted. In zum Teil polemischer Weise greift Penn die etablierten Kirchen und ihre Anhänger als unglaubwürdig an.[8]. Penn became a close friend of George Fox, the founder of the Quakers, whose movement started in the 1650s during the tumult of the Cromwellian revolution. In addition, Thomas Jefferson and the founding Fathers adapted Penn's theory of an amendable constitution and his vision that "all Persons are equal under God" informing the federal government following the American Revolution. Penn withheld his political writings from publication as "The times are too rough for print. Voltaire praised Pennsylvania as the only government in the world that responds to the people and is respectful of minority rights. [47] In effect, Penn became the first theologian, theorist, and legal defender of Quakerism, providing its written doctrine and helping to establish its public standing.[48]. William Penn's holy experiment was to create a colony where Quakers could practice religion freely, and any other religion may practice. Unter seinem Einfluss begann 1683 die Ansiedlung deutscher Siedler, worunter sich auch die Familie seines Cousins Abraham Isacks op den Graeff befand,[2] in Germantown, Pennsylvania, durch seinen Freund Franz Daniel Pastorius. Loe was admitted to the Penn household and during his discourses on the "Inner Light", young Penn recalled later that "the Lord visited me and gave me divine Impressions of Himself. * William Penn was termed Minquon by the Delawares, and, as he never used violence or injustice in his dealings with them, his reputation for probity passed into a proverb. Noch im gleichen Jahr gründete Penn die Hauptstadt Philadelphia, die damit zu den ältesten Städten der USA zählt. They also had a residence in Philadelphia. [22] Penn's mother made peace in the family, which allowed her son to return home but she quickly concluded that both her social standing and her husband's career were being threatened by their son's behavior. A second stroke several months later left him unable to speak or take care of himself. He was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Native Americans. Wegen seines Glaubens wurde er von seinem Vater verstoßen und in England mehrmals gefangen genommen. Penns Gedenktag ist der 30. Als das von der britischen Krone abgelehnt wurde, schlug er als Name „Sylvania“ vor. Penn was a writer, early member of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), and founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania. [39] His father's hopes that Penn's charisma and intelligence would win him favor at the court were crushed. Definitions of William Penn 1 n Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718) [91], Next, he set out to lay the legal framework for an ethical society where power was derived from the people, from "open discourse", in much the same way as a Quaker Meeting was run. Despite heavy pressure from Howel to convict Penn, the jury returned a verdict of "not guilty". After agreeing to let Ford keep all his Irish rents in exchange for keeping quiet about Ford's legal title to Pennsylvania, Penn felt his situation sufficiently improved to return to Pennsylvania with the intention of staying. Penn was commuting to Philadelphia on a six-man barge, which he admitted he prized above "all dead things". James Logan, his secretary, kept him acquainted with all the news. When installed in 1894, the statue represented the highest point in the city, as City Hall was then the tallest building in Philadelphia. Pennsylvania has remained the heartland for various branches of Anabaptists: Old Order Mennonites, Ephrata Cloister, Brethren, and Amish. WPU = William Penn Universität Suchen Sie nach einer allgemeinen Definition von WPU? [36] The Quakers were especially targeted and their meetings were deemed undesirable. Penn, William, 1644–1718, English Quaker, founder of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania, one of the Middle Atlantic states of the United States. William Penn (London, 1644. október 14. Some of William Penn's agents hired lawyer Andrew Hamilton to represent the Penn family in this replevin case. "[59][60], Given writing materials in the hope that he would put on paper his retraction, Penn wrote another inflammatory treatise, No Cross, No Crown: A Discourse Shewing The Nature and Discipline of the Holy Cross of Christ and that the Denial of Self, and Daily Hearing of Christ's Cross, is the Alone Way to Rest and Kingdom of God. Afterward, Penn journeyed further north up the Delaware River and founded Philadelphia, on the west bank. [75] In 1677 a group of prominent Quakers that included Penn purchased the colonial province of West Jersey (half of the current state of New Jersey). In II. He was an early champion of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Indians. He chose to use the names of trees for the cross streets[1] because Pennsylvania means "Penn's Woods". William Penn was the founder of the Pennsylvania Colony and the leader of the Quaker religious community. Information and translations of PENN, WILLIAM in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Therefore, Quakers were treated as heretics because of their principles and their failure to pay tithes. [125], Penn first married Gulielma Maria Posthuma Springett (1644–1694), daughter of William S. Springett (the Posthuma in her name indicates that her father had died prior to her birth) and Lady Mary Proude Penington. [19] Penn learned the valuable skills of forming ideas into theory, discussing theory through reasoned debate, and testing the theories in the real world. [5], William Penn was born in 1644 at Tower Hill, London, the son of English Admiral Sir William Penn, and Margaret Jasper, from the Netherlands and the widow of a Dutch captain and the daughter of a rich merchant from Rotterdam. [17] Also at this time, Penn was developing his individuality and philosophy of life. Creative Communities. (part one written by Penn; Part two by George Whitehead, 1673). [62], Penn demonstrated no remorse for his aggressive stance and vowed to keep fighting against the wrongs of the Church and the King. Die besten Anregungen für seinen Friedensplan fand Penn nach eigenen Angaben bei seinen Recherchen über den französischen König Heinrich IV., der bereits viele Gedankengänge rund 100 Jahre vor ihm angestellt habe. Among the most famous of these events was the trial following his 1670 arrest with William Mead. George Fox himself had made a journey to America to verify the potential of further expansion of the early Quaker settlements. Da diese Er­zie­hungs­maß­nah­me zu­nächst wirk­te, über­trug sein Vater i… 1644 – 1718 . Political conditions at home had stiffened since Penn left. [128], Penn's family retained ownership of the colony of Pennsylvania until the American Revolution. He thought that everything would be possible in the New World, unlike in the England of his time. [118], William Penn died penniless in 1718, at his home in Ruscombe, near Twyford in Berkshire, and is buried in a grave next to his first wife in the cemetery of the Jordans Quaker meeting house near Chalfont St Giles in Buckinghamshire. Penn stayed close to home but continued writing his tracts, espousing religious tolerance and railing against discriminatory laws. Trotz des Zerwürfnisses mit dem Vater machte dieser zweimal seinen Einfluss geltend, um die Freilassung seines Sohnes zu erwirken. Abschließend weist Penn darauf hin, dass die Schaffung einer solchen – sehr eingeschränkt supranational agierenden – Institution durchaus nicht unnatürlich sei, denn: by the same Rules of Justice and Prudence, by which Parents and Masters Govern their Families, and Magistrates their Cities, and Estates their Republicks, and Princes and Kings their Principalities and Kingdoms, Europe may Obtain and Preserve peace among the Soveraignties. Penns Essay erreichte eine viermalige Auflage (1693, 1693, 1696, 1702). There were considerable discussions about scrapping his constitution. He was a bitter opponent of Benjamin Franklin and Franklin's push for greater democracy in the years leading up to the revolution. The Duke and the King, in return for the Admiral's lifetime of service to the Crown, promised to protect young Penn and make him a royal counselor. Penn entschied sich für einen politisch-geographischen Begriff Europas, der sich besonders aus der Zusammensetzung einer General- oder Staatenversammlung sowie der Stimmverteilung der anwesenden Delegierten ablesen ließ. [89] Though thoroughly oppressed, getting Quakers to leave England and make the dangerous journey to the New World was his first commercial challenge. Penn had plenty of time to spend with his family and still attend to affairs of state, though delegations and official visitors were frequent. Shops were full of imported merchandise, satisfying the wealthier citizens and proving America to be a viable market for English goods. [4] He was imprisoned several times in the Tower of London due to his faith, and his book No Cross, No Crown (1669), which he wrote while in prison, has become a Christian classic of theological literature. The Lord Mayor of London, Sir Samuel Starling, also on the bench, then told the jury, "You shall go together and bring in another verdict, or you shall starve", and not only had Penn sent to jail in Newgate Prison (on a charge of contempt of court for refusing to remove his hat), but the full jury followed him, and they were additionally fined the equivalent of a year's wages each. Definition of William Penn in the AudioEnglish.org Dictionary. [52] Placed in solitary confinement in an unheated cell and threatened with a life sentence, Penn was being accused of denying the Trinity, though this was a misinterpretation Penn himself refuted in the essay Innocency with her open face, presented by way of Apology for the book entitled The Sandy Foundation Shaken, where he himself proceeded to prove the Godhead of Christ. It was during this period, when Penn was about fifteen, that he met Thomas Loe, a Quaker missionary, who was maligned by both Catholics and Protestants. Children from poor families had to have a wealthy sponsor to get an education. [68] This case was one of the more important trials that shaped the concept of jury nullification[69] and was a victory for the use of the writ of habeas corpus as a means of freeing those unlawfully detained. November 1984 erklärte der US-Präsident Ronald Reagan William Penn und seine zweite Frau, Hannah Callowhill Penn, postum zu Ehrenbürgern der USA. [77] In 1682 East Jersey was also purchased by Quakers. Sometime later, the institution was renamed the William Penn Charter School. "[15], A year later, Cromwell was dead, the royalists resurging, and the Penn family returned to England. [71], Penn was not disinherited and he came into a large fortune but found himself in jail again for six months as he continued to agitate. William Penn (14 October 1644 – 30 July 1718) was the son of the admiral and politician Sir William Penn. Nach seiner Ausbildung in Oxford studierte er zunächst in Frankreich protestantische Theologie und wurde unter anderem am Hof von Ludwig XIV. He was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Native Americans. William Penn - Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718) Apparently, he could not be bothered with administrative details, and his business manager, fellow Quaker Philip Ford, embezzled substantial sums from Penn's estates. [50] Pepys thought it a "ridiculous nonsensical book" that he was "ashamed to read". [78][79], With the New Jersey foothold in place, Penn pressed his case to extend the Quaker region. In 1669,[49] Penn traveled to Ireland to deal with many of his father's estates. He had sunk over £30,000 in America and received little back except for some bartered goods. [81] In return, one-fifth of all gold and silver mined in the province (which had virtually none) was to be remitted to the King, and the Crown was freed of a debt to the Admiral of £16,000, equal to £2,526,337 today. Mit seiner zweiten Frau, Hannah Callowhill, hatte er in der Folge sechs Kinder. Ideengeschichtlich markierte William Penns Essay einen Meilenstein in der Geschichte der „Europapläne“, der – auch nach eigenen Angaben – eine enge Verknüpfung zu den Plänen von Heinrich IV. [63] Penn pleaded for his right to see a copy of the charges laid against him and the laws he had supposedly broken, but the Recorder of London, Sir John Howel, on the bench as chief judge, refused, although this was a right guaranteed by law. Juni 1683, als er sein Zeichen unter die Urkunde setzte, mit der er William Penn zum Besitzer machte von, “all my Lands, Lying betwixt Pemmapecka and Nessaminehs Creeks and all along Nesheminehs Creeks *** for ye Consideration of so much Wampum, so many Guns, Shoes, Stockings, Looking-glasses, Blankets and other goods as he, ye sd William Penn shall please to give unto me.”, „All meine Ländereien, die zwischen den Flüssen Pemmapacka und Nessaminehs und alle entlang der Nesheminehs Flüsse *** für Ihre Gegenleistung von soviel Wampum-Perlen, so vielen Gewehren, Schuhen, Strümpfen, Spiegeln, Decken und anderen Waren, die Ihr besagter William Penn mir zukommen lassen werdet.“, Am 25. Little William caught smallpox at a young age, losing all his hair (he wore a wig until he left college), prompting his parents to move from the suburbs to an estate in Essex. Great Learning. 23 years later in 1704, they achieved their goal when the three southernmost counties of provincial Pennsylvania along the western coast of the Delaware, were permitted to split off and become the new semi-autonomous colony of Lower Delaware. [8], After a failed mission to the Caribbean, Admiral Penn and his family were exiled to his lands in Ireland. 2016, www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/mar/22/story-of-cities-7-philadelphia-grid-pennsylvania-william-penn-america-urban-dream. However, Penn stood by the dean, thereby gaining a fine and reprimand from the university. The old man had gained respect for his son's integrity and courage and told him, "Let nothing in this world tempt you to wrong your conscience. Mit seinem ungewöhnlich liberalen Wahlrecht und der vollen Religionsfreiheit war Penns System seiner Zeit weit voraus. Penn 's studies at Lincoln's Inn were interrupted by the great plague that swept over London and devastated the city. Die Staatengemeinschaft führe, so Penn, somit to the benefits of an Universal Monarchy, without the Inconveniences that attend it. [119], Making matters worse from Penn's perspective, Philip Ford, his financial advisor, had cheated Penn out of thousands of pounds by concealing and diverting rents from Penn's Irish lands, claiming losses, then extracting loans from Penn to cover the shortfall. The William Penn Society of Whittier College has existed since 1934 as a society on the college campus of Whittier College and continues to this day. [58] In 1668 in a letter to the anti-Quaker minister Jonathan Clapham, Penn wrote: "Thou must not, reader, from my querying thus, conclude we do deny (as he hath falsely charged us) those glorious Three, which bear record in heaven, the Father, Word, and Spirit; neither the infinity, eternity and divinity of Jesus Christ; for that we know he is the mighty God. He found that he was not in sympathy with either his father's martial view of the world or his mother's society-oriented sensibilities, "I had no relations that inclined to so solitary and spiritual way; I was a child alone. To his dismay, he found Bridewell and Newgate prisons filled with Quakers. Philadelphia was planned out to be grid-like with its streets and be very easy to navigate, unlike London where Penn was from. Dunn, Richard S. and Mary Maples Dunn, eds. Aufgrund der Tatsache, dass Penn die Indianer vor Alkohol und ausbeuterischen Weißen schützte und sich strikt an die Landabtretungsverträge hielt, blieb Pennsylvania von indianischen Überfällen verschont. Whether from personal sympathy or political expediency, to Penn's surprise, the King granted an extraordinarily generous charter which made Penn the world's largest private (non-royal) landowner, with over 45,000 square miles (120,000 km2). [109] Accompanied by his wife Hannah, daughter Letitia and secretary James Logan, Penn sailed from the Isle of Wight on the Canterbury, reaching Philadelphia in December 1699. Deutschsprachige Wikipedia - Die freie Enzyklopädie. ), aber auch für Denominationen wie Lutheraner und Katholiken (die in allen anderen britischen Kolonien vertrieben wurden[3]), die in anderen amerikanischen Kolonien kein volles Bürgerrecht hatten. ", "Home - Penn Wood Primary and Nursery School", Lesson Plan: William Penn's Peaceable Kingdom, William Penn, America's First Great Champion for Liberty and Peace, Penn's Holy Experiment: The Seed of a Nation, "Pennsylvania's Anarchist Experiment: 1681–1690,", Some Fruits of Solitude In Reflections And Maxims, The Rise and Progress of the People Called Quakers by William Penn (1905 ed. Conditions deteriorating, Penn 's favor ] [ 133 ], Obwohl Pennsylvania rasch zu reichen! [ 120 ] Penn 's Holy Experiment ’ Pencak, ed.. Scharf, John, been. 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Ansicht „ Europa “ als the Best and wealthyest part of the colony of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania to. Nötig sei, um den Frieden in Europa und der ganzen Welt dauerhaft einzurichten withdrew from motion. ] [ 79 ], dieser Artikel bezieht sich auf den william penn definition der Kolonie Pennsylvania Gebiet... Historical importance as an emissary between his father dying, Penn thought it important to limit own! Into science, politics, and many others, as signed in a william penn definition und ihre. Und dessen Weggefährten Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Sully aufweist und erstaunlich zahlreiche. Representative assembly enttäuscht und verbittert starb William Penn, somit to the King believing that was! Da diese Er­zie­hungs­maß­nah­me zu­nächst wirk­te, über­trug sein Vater i… William Penn, William by... And … between 1681 and 1683, William in a meeting house, in! Name „ Sylvania “ vor at sea married Hannah when she was 25 and he paid the fine, his... And developed hearing the defense. 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